Torino Scale utilizes numbers that range from 0 to
10, where 0 indicates an object has a zero or negligibly
small chance of collision with the Earth. (Zero is also
used to categorize any object that is too small to penetrate
the Earth's atmosphere intact, in the event that a collision
does occur.) A 10 indicates that a collision is certain,
and the impacting object is so large that it is capable
of precipitating a global climatic disaster.
The Torino Scale was created by Professor Richard
P. Binzel in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
Sciences, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
The first version, called "A Near-Earth Object Hazard Index",
was presented at a United Nations conference in 1995 and
was published by Binzel in the subsequent conference proceedings.
A revised version of the "Hazard Index" was presented at
a June 1999 international conference on near-Earth objects
held in Torino (Turin) Italy. The conference participants
voted to adopt the revised version, where the bestowed name
"Torino Scale" recognizes the spirit of international cooperation
displayed at that conference toward research efforts to
understand the hazards posed by near-Earth objects.
("Torino Scale" is the proper usage, not "Turin Scale'')